Trade Liberalization

Analytical Note, November 2009

The Price-based Special Safeguard Mechanism (SSM): Trends in Agriculture Price Declines and Analysis of the Conditionalities in the December 2008 WTO Agriculture Chair’s Text.

This paper begins by highlighting the frequency of price declines experienced by developing countries. It then touches on the use of the price-based Special Safeguard Provision (SSG) by developed countries. (more…)

Analytical Note, November 2009

The Volume-based Special Safeguard Mechanism (SSM): Analysis of the Conditionalities in the December 2008 WTO Agriculture Chair’s Texts.

This paper examines the conditionalities and their implications for the effectiveness of the volume-based SSM in the December 2008 Agriculture Chair’s Modalities. These conditionalities include the trigger level; limits on the remedies and remedy caps; (more…)

Analytical Note, November 2009

Comparing the Special Safeguard Provision (SSG) and the Special Safeguard Mechanism (SSM): Special and Differential Treatment for Whom?.

The Special Safeguard Provision (SSG) in the WTO’s Agreement on Agriculture is an instrument that is regularly used by a number of developed countries to protect their agricultural sector. Most developing countries do not have access to the SSG. (more…)

Policy Brief 20, November 2009

State of Play of the GATS Negotiations: Are Developing Countries Benefiting?.

This paper provides an overview of the state of play in the GATS negotiations, both covering the market access negotiations, as well as the rules negotiations. (more…)

Policy Brief 18, November 2009

Is Development Back in the Doha Round?.

As trade ministers prepare to assemble November 30 in Geneva for further WTO talks, they are hearing another round of new and refurbished projections of how much wealthier the world might be after liberalizing trade.  (more…)

Paper on Carbon-Based Competitiveness, Trade and Climate Change, October 2009

Carbon-Based Competitiveness, Trade and Climate Change: Perspectives of Developing Countries.

This paper analyses a number of issues raised by the increasing links between the global trade and climate agendas such as tariff liberalisation on green technologies, the use of low carbon standards, intellectual property rights and border adjustment measures. The paper examines these issues from the perspectives of developing countries focusing on the political and economic considerations that underlie them. (more…)

Analytical Note, June 2009

The Cotonou Partnership Agreement, the Economic Partnership Agreements and WTO Compatibility: Can Initialed Interim EPAs be Notified?.

This Analytical Note analyses the legal status of the interim Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) under WTO law. This is because most of the EPAs thus far initialed are interim agreements. It is thus important to understand the legal status of these interim agreements under article XXIV of GATT. (more…)

Analytical Note, June 2009

Negotiating Services Free Trade Agreements (FTAs) with the European Union: Some Issues for Developing Countries to Consider.

This Analytical Note explores the options available to developing countries in negotiating agreements establishing Free Trade Areas (FTAs) involving a trade in services component with the European Union (EU). (more…)

Research Paper 20, May 2009

Industrialisation and Industrial Policy in Africa: Is It a Policy Priority?.

The importance of industrialisation as an engine of economic growth and development cannot be overstated. Industrial production creates job opportunities at higher skill levels, facilitates denser links across the services and agricultural sectors, between rural and urban economies and between consumer, intermediate and capital goods industries. (more…)

Analytical Note, May 2009

Analysis of the Draft Interim Trade Sustainability Impact Assessment (TSIA) of the EU-Central America FTA.

Currently, the EU and Central American countries are negotiating the Free Trade Agreement. The European Commission commissioned a Trade Sustainability Impact Assessment (TSIA) which is estimated to be completed by August 2009. On 6 April 2009, the draft interim technical report was published (in English). (more…)

Analytical Note, March 2009

EPAs and Benchmarking Development.

The Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) being negotiated between the EU and Africa pose a major challenge for African countries since they are essentially free trade agreements. As such, the issue of development benchmarks has often been discussed. (more…)

Analytical Note, December 2008

Article XXIV and RTAs: How Much Wiggle Room for Developing Countries?.

The issue of ‘WTO Compatibility’ of regional trade agreements (RTAs) has been intensely debated ever since the days of the GATT. RTAs are governed by Article XXIV in the GATT. The Article however does not have a development dimension. (more…)


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