The Status of Patenting Plants in the Global South
Over the last few decades, the number of patents on plants and plant parts has greatly increased in various parts of the world. This has triggered social debate about possible negative consequences for the breeding sector, farmers and society. Despite the urgency of these questions, most research and literature has focused exclusively on developed countries – the USA and European Union, in particular – while little is known about the extent to which plants are being patented in other parts of the world. This research report, conducted and written by Prof. Carlos M. Correa, aims to fill this information gap by providing an overview of the status of patenting plants in the developing countries and emerging economies of the Global South.
Towards the Adoption of a UN Declaration on the Rights of Peasants and Other People Working In Rural Areas
The UN Declaration on the Rights of Peasants and Other People Working in Rural Areas has been constructed by an Open-ended Intergovernmental Working Group over six years of open and transparent negotiations. The text has significant support from members of the Human Rights Council. Accordingly, member States of the Human Rights Council should adopt the Declaration through an upcoming Resolution at the 39th Human Rights Council Session (10-28 September 2018).
Access to and Benefit-Sharing of Marine Genetic Resources beyond National Jurisdiction: Developing a New Legally Binding Instrument
This paper examines the underlying principles and main elements of binding and non-binding international instruments relating to access and benefit-sharing of genetic resources. It discusses the gap left by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea and some of the elements that might be considered in developing a new legally-binding instrument on access and benefit-sharing derived from the exploitation of marine genetic resources found in areas beyond national jurisdiction, as mandated by the United Nations General Assembly. (more…)
The concept of Farmers’ Rights recognized the role of farmers as custodians of biodiversity and helped to draw attention to the need to preserve practices that are essential for sustainable agriculture. This paper examines one particular aspect of such rights, perhaps the most controversial. It deals with the component of farmers’ rights referring to the use, exchange and sale of farm-saved seeds. Although that concept was initially introduced in 1989 with the aim of balancing the rights of farmers as breeders and of commercial plant breeders, a specific reference to the rights relating to seeds was only introduced upon the conclusion of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGRFA) in 2001.