The WTO’s Agriculture Domestic Supports Negotiations
The historical problems in agriculture continue today. Developed countries with the financial capacity continue to subsidise their farmers and export these agricultural products. This has also been enabled by the Uruguay Round through large AMS entitlements for mostly developed countries ($19 billion for US and now about $95 billion for EU27), as well as the Green Box (Annex 2 of the Agreement on Agriculture). (more…)
The Price-based Special Safeguard Mechanism (SSM): Trends in Agriculture Price Declines and Analysis of the Conditionalities in the December 2008 WTO Agriculture Chair’s Text.
This paper begins by highlighting the frequency of price declines experienced by developing countries. It then touches on the use of the price-based Special Safeguard Provision (SSG) by developed countries. (more…)
The Volume-based Special Safeguard Mechanism (SSM): Analysis of the Conditionalities in the December 2008 WTO Agriculture Chair’s Texts.
This paper examines the conditionalities and their implications for the effectiveness of the volume-based SSM in the December 2008 Agriculture Chair’s Modalities. These conditionalities include the trigger level; limits on the remedies and remedy caps; (more…)
The Extent of Agriculture Import Surges in Developing Countries: What are the Trends.
The paper gives an overview of the trends in different groupings of developing countries’ agricultural import surges, as well as the import surge statistics for a sample of 56 developing countries. This is followed by a look at the products for which import surges are most frequently occurring. (more…)
Controversial Points in the Discussion on Special Safeguard Mechanism (SSM) in the Doha Round.
The Special Safeguard Mechanism (SSM) is often quoted as one of the main controversial points that lead to the failure to the WTO mini-ministerial process in July 2008. Technical divergences relate to key aspects of the design and operation of the mechanism but also strong political divergences among exporters and importers. (more…)
The WTO’s July 2008 Mini-Ministerial: Agriculture, NAMA, Process Issues and the Road Ahead.
This paper outlines the main events which took place during the WTO’s July mini-Ministerial. It goes on to provide a discussion of the key issues that were important in that meeting – agriculture, cotton, the non-agriculture market access negotiations, as well as systemic process concerns. (more…)
Overview of the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures in Quad Countries on Tropical Fruits and Vegetables Imported from Developing Countries.
A number of developing countries,1 and especially least developed countries (LDCs), rely on agriculture for their food security, export earnings and rural development. It has been estimated that the agricultural sector accounts for between 30 per cent and 60 per cent of gross domestic product (GDP) for many of these countries, and is the major source of foreign exchange. (more…)