Taxation

Tax Cooperation Policy Brief 22, 12 January 2022

Global Minimum Corporate Tax: Interaction of Income Inclusion Rule with Controlled Foreign Corporation and Tax-sparing Provisions

By Kuldeep Sharma, ADIT (CIOT,UK), FTI (Australia), Insolvency Professional (IBBI)

The OECD/G20 Inclusive Framework on BEPS (the Inclusive Framework) agreed on 8 October 2021 to the Statement on the Two-Pillar Solution to Address the Tax Challenges Arising from the Digitalisation of the Economy. The Two-Pillar Solution will ensure that MNEs will be subject to a minimum tax rate of 15%, and will re-allocate profit of the largest and most profitable MNEs to countries worldwide. Under these recommendations, inter alia, Pillar Two consists of two interlocking domestic rules (together the Global Anti-Base Erosion Rules (GloBE)), which includes an Income Inclusion Rule (IIR) to impose a top-up tax on a parent entity in respect of the low taxed income of a constituent entity. The IIR shall be incorporated in domestic laws of opting jurisdictions, and seems to have profound interaction with the Controlled Foreign Corporation (CFC) and tax-sparing provisions. The IIR operates in a way that is closely comparable to a CFC rule and raises the same treaty questions as raised by CFC rules, although there are a number of differences between the IIR and the CFC rules. In the context of IIR, there may be a case when the Ultimate Parent Entity (UPE) is taxed on the Constituent Entities’ (CEs) income and the spared tax is not considered as covered taxes for calculating the Effective Tax Rate (ETR) of the CE. This generates a situation for developing countries in which they have to shore up their ETR by overhauling their tax incentive regimes and retooling domestic legal framework for more effective taxation of MNEs to avoid losing a significant portion of their tax right/base to a developed country. Adoption of IIR (which is an extension of CFC rules) under Pillar Two is therefore going to create conflict with the tax-sparing rules. From the perspective of developing countries, the adoption of GloBE implies losing tax incentives as a tax policy instrument to attract foreign direct investment. This is why every country involved, but especially developing countries, should undertake a thorough examination to determine whether such measures are convenient for their interests in the long run.

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SouthViews No. 155, 25 October 2017

The Trump tax reform plan is likely to negatively affect developing countries

By Yuefen LI

The Trump administration has proposed a tax reform framework to the US Congress. Major components are a large reduction in the corporate tax rate, changes to the way US profits currently earned abroad are taxed, and how past profits parked abroad are treated if brought home. All these reforms if accepted by Congress, will most likely have adverse effects for developing countries, including by increasing capital flows from and reducing FDI to them. (more…)

SouthViews No. 144, 20 February 2017

The planned US border tax would most likely violate WTO rules

By Martin Khor

As the US Congress and President consider whether to introduce a border adjustment tax, a major question is whether such a measure will violate the rules of the World Trade Organization. Experts have good reason to believe the tax in several ways go counter to the WTO. But there are also shortcomings in the WTO system that could limit its usefulness in stopping the US if it is determined enough. A shorter version of this article was published by the IPS. This is the second of a two part series on the US border tax plan. (more…)

SouthViews No. 143, 17 February 2017

Beware of the new US protectionist plan, the border adjustment tax

By Martin Khor

A new protectionist device is being planned in the United States that could devastate the exports of developing countries and cause American and other foreign companies to relocate. The complexities and implications of the proposed border adjustment tax are explained in this article. A version of this article was published by IPS. A second article on this issue will be published soon. (more…)

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