Regional Trade Agreements

Analytical Note, November 2011

Economic Partnership Agreements in Africa: A Benefit-Cost Analysis.

This study provides a simple cost-benefit analysis of the Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) between African countries and the European Union. It compares the costs of signing an EPA – measured as tariff revenue losses, versus the “gains” of signing an EPA – measured as (more…)

Analytical Note, November 2010

Sub-Saharan Africa’s Exports Trends and the EPAs.

Trade trends are changing quite rapidly for Africa. A careful analysis of Africa’s export statistics reveals startling facts regarding the markets that are most important for Africa today, and in the years to come. (more…)

Analytical Note, November 2010

EPAs and WTO Compatibility – A Development Perspective.

The discussion on WTO compatibility in the Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) between the EU and ACP countries has so far been very narrowly defined, and largely from the perspective of the European Union. (more…)

Research Paper 31, July 2010

Legal Analysis of Services and Investment in the Cariforum-EC EPA: Lessons for other Developing Countries.

This Research Paper is a legal analysis of the EC-Cariforum Services and Investment Chapter. It demystifies the many complex technical details in the EPA text and illustrates where this services and investment template goes beyond the WTO’s GATS. The paper highlights implications for other developing countries embarking on similar negotiations with the EU. (more…)

Analytical Note, June 2010

EPA Contentious Issues Matrix: Key Problems and Some Recommendations.

The document contains a matrix of 21 contentious issues pertaining to the goods negotiations in the EPAs. For each issue, the ‘best’ language (i.e. least damaging language) from the various EPA texts is identified. The problems posed by these contentious issues are then highlighted, and some recommendations provided. (more…)

Analytical Note, April 2010

Contentious Issues in the Goods EPAs: What is the Value of the 2009 Renegotiations?.

A large part of the discomfort of many ACP countries vis-à-vis the EPAs have to do with what are now known as ‘contentious issues’ or ‘unresolved issues’. Negotiations on these issues took place between the EU and some African sub-regions in 2009, with agreements on some of these issues emerging for SADC and ESA countries. (more…)

Analytical Note, March 2010

EPAs: The Wrong Development Model for Africa And Options for the Future.

The EPAs provide the wrong development model for Africa, and will jeopardize African countries’ development and regional integration prospects, rather than support them. Until now, only 10 out of 47 African countries have signed the EPA – most are dragging out the negotiations because they are reluctant or are resisting signing, due to their anti-developmental content. (more…)

Analytical Note, June 2009

The Cotonou Partnership Agreement, the Economic Partnership Agreements and WTO Compatibility: Can Initialed Interim EPAs be Notified?.

This Analytical Note analyses the legal status of the interim Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) under WTO law. This is because most of the EPAs thus far initialed are interim agreements. It is thus important to understand the legal status of these interim agreements under article XXIV of GATT. (more…)

Analytical Note, June 2009

Negotiating Services Free Trade Agreements (FTAs) with the European Union: Some Issues for Developing Countries to Consider.

This Analytical Note explores the options available to developing countries in negotiating agreements establishing Free Trade Areas (FTAs) involving a trade in services component with the European Union (EU). (more…)

Research Paper 20, May 2009

Industrialisation and Industrial Policy in Africa: Is It a Policy Priority?.

The importance of industrialisation as an engine of economic growth and development cannot be overstated. Industrial production creates job opportunities at higher skill levels, facilitates denser links across the services and agricultural sectors, between rural and urban economies and between consumer, intermediate and capital goods industries. (more…)

Analytical Note, May 2009

Analysis of the Draft Interim Trade Sustainability Impact Assessment (TSIA) of the EU-Central America FTA.

Currently, the EU and Central American countries are negotiating the Free Trade Agreement. The European Commission commissioned a Trade Sustainability Impact Assessment (TSIA) which is estimated to be completed by August 2009. On 6 April 2009, the draft interim technical report was published (in English). (more…)

Analytical Note, March 2009

EPAs and Benchmarking Development.

The Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) being negotiated between the EU and Africa pose a major challenge for African countries since they are essentially free trade agreements. As such, the issue of development benchmarks has often been discussed. (more…)


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